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Research Methods

The Science of Psychology


Reliability & Validity

Conceptualizing a Research Study

Descriptive Methods

Key Elements of Experimental Design

Experimental Designs

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Applying Research Concepts

General Review Material


Why We Need Statistics

Levels of Measurement

Central Tendency and Variability

Inferential Statistics

Statistical Significance

Single Sample t-test

t-test for Dependent Means

t-test for Independent Means

One-way Analysis of Variance

Factorial Analysis of Variance

Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance




Scale Reliability

Applying Statistical Concepts

General Review Material

Practice: Hand Calculation of t-test for Independent Means(Self-Reference & Memory)

This activity can be used as practice after students have learned how to hand calculate a t-test for independent means.

t-test for Independent Means; Hand Calculation

Author: Natalie Ciarocco

Monmouth University

Posted: Wednesday, May 19, 2010